Definisi dan Tipe-tipe ‘Phrase’ dalam Bahasa Inggris


Kampung Inggris Bandung E-PLC – Apa itu Phrase? Phrase atau Frasa adalah sekelompok kata dalam kalimat yang tidak memiliki subjek atau kata kerja. Sebuah frasa tidak dapat mengungkapkan pemikiran yang lengkap sendiri karena tidak memiliki subjek dan kata kerja. Inilah yang membedakan klausa dari frasa.


Frasa terdiri dari kata utama, yang mendefinisikan sifat gramatikal yang akan diasumsikan oleh unit dan satu atau beberapa pengubah opsional. Sebuah frasa selanjutnya dapat terdiri dari frasa lain di dalamnya.


Tipe-tipe Frasa 

Frasa dikelompokkan menjadi delapan kategori, yaitu; frasa nomina, frasa infinitif, frasa verba, frasa apositif, frasa partisipatif, frasa gerund, frasa absolut, dan frasa preposisi (noun phrases, infinitive phrases, verb phrases, appositive phrases, participial phrases, gerund phrases, absolute phrases, and prepositional phrases). Mari kita lihat masing-masing frasa secara rinci berikut dengan contohnya:


Noun Phrases

Frasa kata benda terdiri dari kata benda dan pengubahnya, misalnya: 

The disabled woman was left out of the trip.

The deceased person was humble and faithful.

The young vet had come across several cases of pneumonia.

Sunday became a quiet, sorrowful evening.

The ailing mother was generous and honest.


Verb Phrases

Frasa kata kerja terdiri dari kata kerja dan kata-kata yang memodifikasi kata kerja. Misalnya:

She was waiting for the bus to arrive.

She was interested in watching the film.

You have not uttered a word since morning.

You might enjoy a cup of tea.

He was excited to be part of the party.

He was anxious to meet her favorite actor

She was distressed when she failed the test.

He was pleased to have his application approved.

He was eager to say goodbye to his classmates.

You might find it necessary to carry an umbrella.

You could have won the race if you had prepared in advance.

He was prepared to quit the job if her nemesis was to become the CEO.


Gerund Phrases

Frasa gerund adalah frasa kata benda yang dimulai dengan kata kerja yang bertindak sebagai kata benda. Misalnya:

Walking in a thorny bush can be stressful.

Marking assignments can be challenging.

Getting married is exciting.

Taking my daughter out is fun.

Wandering across the street is awkward.

Getting a good grade was the result of hard work.

Doing an assignment for her friends was the only way to earn a living.

Attending extra classes wasn’t enough to improve her grades.

Washing clothes is tedious.

Staring at the visitors all day did not earn her a living.


Infinitive Phrase

Frasa Infinitive adakah frasa kata benda yang dimulai dengan kata kerja infinitif. Misalnya: 

I moved to the city to work on a government project.

He planned protests to send a message to the authorities.

I tried to convince him, but he couldn’t listen.

The institution decided to reduce the workers’ pay.

To prepare a meal, you need to have all the ingredients in place.

She needs counseling to change her behavior.

He needs to work out on his weaknesses.

I tried to stop the boys from fighting, but my effort ended in vain.

.He could have made it, but he was not aggressive enough.

He has to improve if he has to be promoted to the next class.

She has to prepare supper on time if she wants to stand a chance to do the assignment.


Appositive Phrase

Frasa apositif adalah frasa yang mendefinisikan dan menegaskan kembali kata benda. Ini terdiri dari satu atau beberapa kata. Misalnya:

Eliud, the most famous marathoner, can run 42 kilometers in less than two hours.

My thought, submitting all the assignments in a PDF format, was welcomed by the lecturer.

Chelsea, my favorite football club, is doing well in the competition.

A lion, the king of the jungle, is feared by all animals.

My house girl, the helper of the family, is also part of my family.

Her pet, Golden Retriever, was her everything.

My boyfriend, the love of my life, is also a workmate.

Christiano Ronaldo, the most famous footballer of all time, is the most adored.


Participle Phrase

Jenis frase ini dimulai dengan present atau past participle. Misalnya pada contoh berikut ini:

Being aware of the situation, I wish I had never told her the truth.

We are eager to start a new chapter, having completed the previous one yesterday.

I’m more than happy, knowing the number of guests that have confirmed to attend the ceremony.

Painted light-blue, the old car seemed new.

Stolen with my computer, my watch is nowhere to be found.


Prepositional Phrase 

Frasa preposisi dapat berfungsi sebagai kata keterangan, kata sifat, atau kata benda dan dimulai dengan kata depan. Misalnya pada contoh berikut ini:

He beat the odds to win the top award.

The screwdriver was on the chair.

I didn’t sleep for a while.

He was surrounded by dogs.

We stayed indoors due to bad weather.

She wrote an interesting article.

She knew it was as a result of neglecting duties.

We didn’t talk for a while.

We parted ways a long time ago.

He doesn’t see eye to eye with her younger sister.


Absolute Phrase

Frasa absolut terdiri dari modifier, noun, dan participle. Misalnya pada frasa berikut ini: The harvest declined with excessive sunlight.

Kesimpulan, frasa adalah tambahan yang bagus untuk segala bentuk tulisan. Sebagai seorang penulis, penambahan frasa dalam tulisan kita adalah salah satu cara untuk membuatnya lebih bermakna. Penggunaan frasa yang benar memastikan tulisan kita mengalir. Frasa juga menambah kejelasan pada segala bentuk tulisan, yang berarti pembaca dapat dengan mudah memahami maksud penulis. Pemilihan frasa juga penting karena tidak semua frasa dapat masuk ke dalam kalimat atau paragraf tertentu. Pastikan frasa yang kamu pilih bisa memperjelas apa yang kamu tulis.


Baca juga: Definisi, Ciri dan Tipe-tipe ‘Sentence’ dalam Bahasa Inggris

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